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Full text of "New life for a campus showing the signs of age : architectural and landscape design guidelines for the revitalization of the Social Security Adminstration campus headquarters Woodlawn, Maryland"



Contents 



Background Notes and the Design Challenge 



Site and Landscape Analysis and Guidelines 



Exterior Architecture Analysis and Guidelines 



Building Interiors Analysis and Guidelines 



Process and Implementation Guidelines 



Appendix 1 : Summary of the Guidelines 



Appendix 2: Additional Issues and Concerns 



Appendix 3: Charrette Agenda 



Appendix 4: Biographies of the Design Team and 
List of Participants in the Charrette 



New Life for a Campus Showing Signs of Age: 



Architectural and Landscape 
Design Guidelines 

FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF THE 

Social Security Administration 
Campus Headquarters 
WooDLAWN, Maryland 




Report of the Design Charrette Team 
November 2-3, 1994 

Prepared for the 

General Services Administration and 

Social Security Administration 

Prepared by the 

Design Program of the 

National Endowment for the Arts 



Thomas Walton, Ph.D. 

Rapporteur 

School of Architecture and Planning 

The Catholic University of America 

Washington, DC 



Background Notes and the Design Challenge 



With a suburban corporate profile, the campus 
headquarters of the Social Securirv' Administra- 
tion (SSA) does not convey the typical image 
of a major federal office center. Located west of 
Baltimore in Woodlawn, Maryland, the com- 
plex is sited on 281 acres along Security Boule- 
vard and is hallmarked by dense woodland, 
expansive lawns, a relaxed collection of low- 
and high-rise buildings, and several vast parking 
lots. The property includes eleven government- 
owned structures. To the east, the Computer 
Center and Utility buildings are relatively new. 
However, most of the complex - notably the 
eight structures that are the architectural focus 
of this analysis: Altmeyer, Operations, the 
Annex, East High, East Low, West High, West 
Low and Supply - were constructed during the 
late- 1950s through the 1960s and 70s. Aestheti- 
cally, the Modern movement seems to have 
inspired the minimally articulated facades of 
brick, precast panels, and glass, as well as the 
massing of the entire headquarters that juxta- 
poses three- and four-story edifices with towers 
rising up to ten stories. 

Presently, more than 9,000 people work at 
the complex, and about 75 percent of them are 
automobile commuters. There is a small two- 
story garage located under the West High Rise 
building, but most of the parking is at grade 
with some forty acres of the Woodlawn site 
devoted to carparks and roads. Work hours are 
staggered. Some employees arrive as early as 
6 am; most have gone home by 7 pm. 

The headquarters offers several amenities. 
There are two cafeterias with plans to open a 
third. The largest of these facilities (between the 
Altmeyer and Operations buildings) looks out 



on a landscaped court}'ard that serves as an 
outdoor "dining room" during the summer. 
There is a post office, credit union and several 
snack bars in the complex. Employees can, for 
a fee, join an on-site fitness center located in 
the Annex building, an option so popular that 
there is a waiting list for membership. And 
20,000 square feet of space in the south end 
of the Operations building are devoted to two 
daycare centers, each having its own playground 
and serving 100 children. Shopping and addi- 
tional restaurants can be found in the blocks 
surrounding the campus. 

Clearly, there are many positive aspects to 
working at the Woodlawn campus. At the same 
time, the complex has, over the past several 
years, shown significant signs of aging. Deterio- 
ration of the facades is one of the most obvious 
problems. Walls on the Annex and Operations 
buildings, for example, are bowing in several 
places. (Indeed, this trend was so severe on the 
south facade of Operations that exterior rein- 
forcing was required to stabilize movement.) 
At a minimum, windows in East High and 
East Low need new caulking and gaskets. And 
throughout the complex, trapped moisture has 
caused exterior glazed brick to deteriorate and 
spall to the point where it will be necessary to 
replace this entire veneer. 

In addition, the time has come to upgrade 
various building systems. Heating, ventilation, 
and air conditioning are the top sources of 
worker complaints. Office partitions frequently 
restrict air flow. Spaces with southern exposure 
are often too warm while other areas are too 
cold. Asbestos abatement is necessary in several 
locations. Sprinkler and other fire safety systems 




'NTERSTATE /-70 



Site plan with main public 
entrance ojf Security Boulevard 
to the Altmeyer Building. 



Background Notes and the Design Challenge 



should be installed, and most divisions could 
use new lighting, ceilings, and floors as well as 
better workstations. 

Finally, there is room for improvement In 
less obvious arenas. The sense of entry and 
orientation are weak points. The network and 
hierarchy of roads is bewildering, particularly 
to vendors and visitors. Interiors, especially 
within Operations' vast footprint, are a confus- 
ing and anonymous maze of carrels. Pedestrian 
pathways and the transition from parking to 
office need further study. And although the 
landscaping is generally attractive, it could 
better complement building facades both 
aesthetically and environmentally, and site 
amenities, including sculpture, fountains, 
and the opportunities for recreation, could 
also be developed more effectively. 

Responding to these circumstances, the 
U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) 
has outlined a 1 4-year plan to renovate the 
SSA campus. The earliest proposals involve 
East High and East Low, Operations, and the 
Annex. Prospectus Development Studies have 
been prepared for each of these buildings evalu- 
ating the scope of work and budget for various 



20,000 square feet of space in 
the south end of the Operations 
building are devoted to two 
daycare centers, each having its 
own playground and serving 
100 children. 



renovation alternatives. Current estimates are 
that the entire effort will be completed by 2007 
at a cost of some $200 million. There is also an 
agreement with the employees union (which has 
about 6,800 SSA members) regarding the design 
of the new workstations that will be installed as 
renovations proceed. 

All those involved recognize the Woodlawn 
project as a major investment of federal resources. 
As the client for this undertaking, the Social 
Security Administration, an independent federal 
agency as of March 31, 1995 (previously SSA 
had been a unit within the U.S. Department of 
Health and Human Services), wants to be sure 
that the outcome - both as individual elements 
and as a whole - reflects its mission: "To admin- 
ister national Social Security programs as pre- 
scribed by legislation, in an equitable, effective, 
efficient and caring manner." To this end, the 
design challenge is not only to address concerns 
related to individual buildings and site problems, 
but to develop a conception for the entire cam- 
pus that reinforces SSA's mission and identity, 
improves productivity, and provides a quality 
work environment for all employees. 





The design challenge is not 
only to address concerns related 
to individual buildings and 
site problems but to develop 
a conception for the entire 
campus that reinforces SSA's 
mission and identity, improves 
productivity, and provides a 
quality work environment for 
all employees. 



The Charrette Response and Project Objectives 



In essence, what was needed was a larger view - 
a set of recommendations that would establish 
parameters for an SSA campus master plan 
while simultaneously informing the design of 
separate phases of the project. The GSA also 
felt this broad perspective should include fresh 
insights and counsel from outside professionals. 
To this end, the agency sought advice from 
the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 
Design Program as to the best course of action. 
At this juncture, Thomas Grooms, program 
manager of NEA's Federal Design Improvement 
Program (an initiative that since 1972 has 
stressed and facilitated the focus on quality 
for the largest design client in the world - the 
U.S. government), recommended convening a 
"charrette." (Charrette comes from a French 
phrase describing the hectic rush of students at 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts to complete their 
architectural drawings and put their boards on 
the cart, en charrette, as they were being col- 
lected for entry to various competitions. Today, 
the term refers to a thorough study of any par- 
ticular design problem within a limited time 
frame.) From their experience with past coop- 
erative undertakings, Grooms and the GSA 
knew that the outcome from the charrette 
would accomplish two key objectives. First, 
it would focus attention on and generate enthu- 
siasm for the project, opening up a valuable 
dialogue among GSA and SSA employees and 
upper management. Second, it would provide 



a design vision for the campus - not a final 
proposal nor a design mandate, but a rich set 
of guidelines from the charrette design team 
that the GSA and SSA could accept, modify or 
reject as they continued to develop the project 
further. 

Things started to happen quickly once SSA 
agreed to the charrette strategy. November 2-3, 
1994 were chosen as the dates for the event, 
and a multi-disciplinary team was invited to 
participate in the two-day meeting/workshop. 
Jim Olson, a principal of Olson Sundberg 
Architects, and distinguished Seattle architect 
dedicated to developing environmentally sensi- 
tive design strategies, was selected to head the 
team. His associates were landscape architect 
and architect Everett Fly, head of E.L. Fly & 
Associates, a San Antonio firm with expertise 
that includes planning and urban design as 
well as landscape architecture and architecture; 
Jeffrey Getty, a design architect with significant 
experience related to federal projects and a 
specialist in technical facilities for Hennington, 
Durham & Richardson in Alexandria, Virginia; 
John Clancy, former chairman of the Brookline 
Redevelopment Authority and a principal of 
Goody, Clancy & Associates, a Boston architec- 
ture and urban planning office; and Gregory 
Tung, a partner in Freedman Tung & Bottomley, 
an urban design and town planning firm in San 
Francisco that focuses on downtown and neigh- 
borhood revitalization and the development of 
public spaces and landmarks. Helping to articu- 
late the goals and facts related to the renovation 
program, SSA invited several of their Architec- 
tural & Engineering Branch staff to participate 




Entrances to the building should 
receive special attention. 



The Charrette Response and project Objectives 



in the charrette, and the GSA had both Mid- 
Atlantic regional and central office managers at 
the meeting. SSA employee representatives were 
also asked to share their concerns and interests. 
(See Appendix 4 for a list of these additional 
charrette participants.) 

When this diverse group of experts gathered 
in a SSA headquarters conference room in early 
November, they had a full agenda. Much of the 
first day was devoted to becoming familiar with 
the issues and scope of the project. There was a 
presentation on the history of the complex and 
the proposed renovations. There was a bus and 
walking tour of the site. There was a round- 
robin discussion where all those present voiced 
what they believed were critical problems and 
goals. And there was a preliminary presentation 
in the afternoon where the design team and 
other participants divided themselves into three 
groups, each of which outlined a variety of 
general themes and design strategies related to 
landscape, architecture, interior design, human 
scale, art, image, ecology, technical systems, 
transportation, movement, and wayfinding. 

As a result of these activities and the dialogue 
they generated, a consensus emerged regarding 
the objectives the team would use to shape the 
charrette guidelines, principles they also hoped 
would influence a future master plan and the 
development of detailed renovation proposals. 



Specifically, the first priority was: 
Think Big! 

The design team confirmed the perspective of 
many at GSA and SSA that the $200 million 
renovation was not only a major investment, 
but in addition, a golden opportunity to estab- 
lish the campus as a model federal office com- 
plex. In dealing with clearly defined, and some- 
times limited, functional and technical issues, 
the agencies and the designers were admonished 
to make sure their solutions were inspired by 
and complemented a larger vision. The goal 
should be to create a meaningful identity for 
the Social Security Administration, enhancing 
the workplace and human environment, and 
reinforcing qualities that would distinguish 
Woodlawn as a special place. 



The goals should be to 
create a meaningful identity 
that enhances the workplace 
and human environment. 




Based on this premise, the remaining project 
goals were divided into two categories: Image - 
the notion that renovations should reflect the 
mission, values and philosophy of SSA; and 
Humanism - the belief that changes should 
benefit both employees and the environment. 
Key components within each ol these objectives 
can be summarized in these terms: 

Image 

The renovated facilities should be 
supportive and accessible. 

When Americans think of Social Security, 
"benefits ' and "services" are the words that 
commonly come to mind. The system is an 
intimate part of the lives of the vast majority 
of retirees, older persons, workers, the disabled, 
and their families in the United States. In this 
sense, changes at the SSA headquarters should 
convey the sense that the agency understands 
the major role it plays in our society and is 
open and ready to help its constituents. 

The RENOVATED FACILITIES SHOULD SUGGEST 
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY. 
Social Security speaks to the lives of all groups 
of Americans. It also, because of its critical 
importance to older people, can help redefine 
and nurture stable and safe ideas of community 
that address the unique needs of these individu- 
als and their relationships with younger Ameri- 
cans. 



The renovated facilities should 
feature cultural and educational 
displays related to ssa. 

Obviously, the complex must be functional, 
but those responsible for the renovation should 
make sure that the buildings and landscape also 
capture the heart and soul of the agency. This 
can be done using such media as exhibits, 
videos, inscriptions, art, and memorials that 
describe how SSA and its staff touch and en- 
hance the lives of so- many ordinary workers. 

The renovated facilities should 

HAVE A civic PRESENCE. 
SSA is not a speculative development or a 
private corporation. It is a public institution 
and the redesign of the complex should reflect 
this public dimension including a sense of 
pride, dignity, timelessness, and permanence. 

The renovated facilities should 
instill trust. 

The SSA headquarters should appear enduring 
without seeming inhuman. The buildings 
should embody images of competence, practi- 
cality, and fiscal responsibility. 



The Charrette Response and Project Objectives 



Humanism 

The renovated facilities should have 
A human scale, evoke a sense of place, 

AND BE AN ATTRACTIVE PLACE TO WORK. 
While a rich and thoughtfully crafted image 
is a crucial component of the SSA project, this 
objective must not overwhelm the needs oi 
individual employees. Design changes at the 
complex should create an inviting human envi- 
ronment affecting a spectrum of priorities from 
how pedestrians move from cars to buildings 
to the detailing and lighting of corridors and 
workstations. People should enjoy working at 
the SSA headquarters, and landscape, architec- 
ture, interior design and the inclusion of art- 
work should promote satisfaction, loyalty, and 
productivity of the workplace. 

The renovated facilities should 

be a healthy place to work. 

Safety, ventilation, lighting, and the health 

hazards of various building materials should 

be of prime concern to those involved in the 

renovation. SSA should be a model of a healthy 

workplace. 

The renovated facilities should 
be flexible. 

Change is constant in contemporary society 
and to the degree that this has an impact on 
SSA's activities, the buildings and interior com- 
ponents should be responsive to new arrange- 
ments without compromising the integrity and 
quality of the design. 



The renovated facilities should be 
A good neighbor at a local, national, 

AND EVEN GLOBAL SCALE. 

SSA must strike a balance between security and 
the desire to be a good neighbor. As the com- 
plex is updated, there is a chance to further 
improve relationships with the surrounding 
community. This may involve better access to 
the site and certain public spaces, h may simply 
be to make the complex a more visually mean- 
ingful and powerful landmark. Whatever the 
final strategy, SSA should be a national demon- 
stration of the benefits of a well-designed fed- 
eral-local relationship. At a global level, the SSA 
campus is a good neighbor if it minimizes the 
waste of precious resources and enhances the 
human and natural environments. 

The RENOVATED FACILITIES SHOULD 
BE AN EXAMPLE OF CONSERVATION AND 
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN. 

As we enter the twenty-first century, these are 
central concerns. The renovation process itself 
should recycle as many materials as possible. 
The redesign of buildings and site should 
involve the selection of materials based on 
life-cycle costs; reduction in the consumption 
of energy, water and other natural resources; 
avoidance of the use of hazardous substances; 
and encouragement of decision-making and 
work patterns that take environmental impact 
into account. 



10 



Once these overall objectives were clearly de- 
fined, the charrette team continued its analysis 
and prepared precise design guidelines and 
recommendations in four specific areas: 

I Site and Landscape 

I Exterior Architecture 

I Building Interiors 

I Process and Implementation 

In the pages that follow, these are the headings 
for outlining the guidelines and related discus- 
sion. It should be noted that in the first three 
categories, the team prefaced its presentation of 
guidelines by identifying positive dimensions 
and missed opportunities of the existing SSA 
campus and the goals related to that particular 
design topic. It should also be noted that those 
participating in the charrette, including SSA 
and GSA representatives, articulated several 
issues that did not fit neatly into the organiza- 
tional framework just described. The team 
wanted to record these ideas as well so they 
are listed in Appendix 2 of this report. 



"Our goal was to create 
a vision that is strong, 
compelling, and will 
project into the future, 
carrying the mission of 

THE SSA." 



—Jim Olson 



11 



Site and Landscape Analysis and Guidelines 



On The Positive Side 

The charrette team recognized that the existing 
landscape is valued and appreciated by its users. 
The abundance of mature trees and other land- 
scape features, the changes in topography, the 
curvilinear roads and paths, the informal pat- 
terns and places throughout the site, and sim- 
ply the quantity of green space were highlighted 
as important virtues of the campus. The main 
cafeteria courtyard and the undeveloped wood- 
land were singled out as panicularly inviting. 

Missed Opportunities 

The team also pointed out several problems. 
In general, trees were not close enough to 
buildings to buffer unpleasant views, noise and 
wind, or shade the south facades of the complex 
and the children's playgrounds. Roads and trees 
were not coordinated as elements to help estab- 
lish a welcoming entrance and clarify orienta- 
tion to the many buildings and functions within 
the campus. Parking lots overwhelmed a major 
portion of the site and had poor pedestrian 
access. There was little in the way of outdoor 
shelters for smokers and those waiting for 
public transportation. Building and site entry 
features were difficult to discern. The landscape 
did not help convey the notion of the head- 
quarters as a "good neighbor. " And the site 
demonstrated neither the principles of ecologi- 
cal and sustainable development nor the federal 
government's stewardship of natural and 
human-made resources. 



GOALS 

I "Environmental humanism" should be the 
theme for site and landscape modifications, 
setting an example of environmental, social, 
and fiscal responsibility. 

I The site and landscape should be redesigned 
to support and express SSA's mission and its 
commitment to quality. 

I The natural beauty of the campus should be 
maintained and enhanced for the benefit of 
both staff and visitors. 

Guidelines 

Natural systems should be the 
basis of ssa campus site planning. 
The natural setting of this complex is one of 
its greatest but underutilized assets. The careful 
contouring of land can significantly improve 
storm runoff and snow banking. Trees can 
provide windbreaks and shading. The appropri- 
ate orientation and detailing of facades can 
bring in direct and reflected light while mini- 
mizing solar gain. This strategy can also have a 
positive impact on the bottom line, for over the 
long-term, "It is," as one team member said, 
"always cheaper to work with nature than to 
conquer it (or ignore it)." 

In general, landscaping 
should focus on native species 
and low-maintenance design. 
Cultivating a variety of native species will im- 
prove the health and sustainability of the green 
spaces. Stressing low-maintenance plants, such 
as grasses and perennial flowers, will minimize 
staff and upkeep expenses without sacrificing 
quality. 



"Given that there is so 
much nature on the site, 
there is an opportunity 
to bring nature closer 
to the people." 



— Greg Tung 



12 



Security Boulevard, the headquarters' 
front lawn, needs a landscape plan to 
"civilize" this critical edge of the site. 
Presently, this area is unused and lacks distinc- 
tion. Perhaps SSA should initiate a campaign to 
plant trees along the strip to help make this 
major route a true boulevard. The entry treat- 
ment in terms of landscaping, signage, markers, 
and even roadways should also be redesigned, 
making it clear that the Altmeyer building is 
the front door of the complex. 



New SITE SIGNAGE AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS 
SHOULD BE DEVELOPED. 
The existing signs are difficult to read and of 
no help to newcomers in understanding and 
getting around the campus. A new system 
should solve these problems and be coordinated 
with a building and interior signage strategy. 
Exterior lighting also has to be upgraded, both 
to enhance and improve the safety of pedestrian 
movement, and to highlight key landscape and 
architectural features of the complex. 



II 




• •• 



#••••••••••• 




the site features in front of the 
Altmeyer building should be redeveloped 
to make that facade a more prominent 
element of the campus. 
Tree planting should support and frame the 
facade, and the relatively narrow visitor drive- 
way should be given greater emphasis with 
elements such as trees and street lamps 

The bus LOOP courtyard should 

BE redesigned TO CLARIFY THE MANY 
functions coming OFF THAT SPACE. 
This area is a confusing mix of building en- 
trances, a bus stop, a smoking area, bicycle 
parking and other activities. The design should 
establish a clear hierarchy of uses, help orient 
people to buildings accessible from this node, 
and provide a human-scaled and attractive 
environment for the many individuals using 
the space. 



Suggested landscaping 
shown in dark green. 



13 



Site and Landscape Analysis and Guidelines 



The south-facing courtyard between 
Annex and Operations should be devel- 
oped AS A MORE DYNAMIC CAMPUS SPACE. 
At the moment, this centrally located paved 
courtyard space is underutilized. Perhaps it 
should be covered over as a winter garden. 
Perhaps major portions of the paving should be 
replaced with plants and special landscape ele- 
ments. Whatever the particular approach, the 
goal should be to create a unique and lively 
open space for employees. 

The PEDESTRIAN AND PLAYGROUND STRIP 
ALONG THE SOUTH FACE OF OPERATIONS 
SHOULD BE WIDENED AND PLANTED 
WITH ADDITIONAL TREES AS A VISUAL 
AND ENVIRONMENTAL BUFFER FOR THE 
DAYCARE CENTER AND THE BUILDING. 
This would create a green zone between the 
playgrounds and the parking lots, improve 
views from the building, and reduce heat gain 
during the summer. 

The east face of Operations also needs 
to be buffered from the parking. 
Perhaps a formal promenade or other type of 
linear scheme could be developed along this 
edge to establish some breathing room between 
the cars and the building. 



The amount of land devoted to 
parking should be reduced. 
As a model of conservation and sustainable 
design, SSA needs to evaluate its parking policy 
and adopt standards that, with thorough analy- 
sis and employee input, encourage car pooling 
and the use of public transit. This would permit 
the agency to landscape areas currently filled 
with automobiles and ameliorate the image of 
the south section of the campus as a sea of cars. 

The existing parking lots should 

BE RELANDSCAPED. 

Trees might be arranged to give the impression 
of "orchard parking." This would reduce heat 
and shade automobiles. In addition, snow stor- 
age areas should be integrated within the new 
design so plowing does not block pedestrian 
paths through the lots and around buildings. 







'o»2a^t2t> 




Trees might be arranged to 
give the impression of "orchard 
parking. " This would reduce 
heat and shade automobiles. 



14 



Trees could contribute 
to cooling summers and 
warming winters. 




Covered walkways should be designed 
between the buildings and the parking. 
Developed in conjunction with landscaping, 
these walkways could break up the vast scale 
of the lots, reinforce employee entrances to the 
complex, and help humanize one of the least 
attractive aspects of the campus. 

SEPARATE PAVILIONS SHOULD BE 
CONSTRUCTED FOR BUS RIDERS AND SMOKERS. 
Both groups are important users of spaces near 
entrances. Waiting areas should be designed to 
encourage public transit commuting, and the 
smoking spaces should be located at appropri- 
ate distances from entrances to avoid conflict 
with non-smokers. Both kinds of structures 
should be coordinated with other architectural 
and landscape improvements. 

Rooftop mechanical equipment screens 
should become a design feature. 
These are enormous structures visible from a 
distance. Rather than big boxes, they should be 
architectural elements that amplify the identity 
of the campus and its several buildings. 



CONTROLLED COMMUNITY ACCESS TO 

THE SITE SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED. 

This might be limited to specific areas and uses. 

The woodland might be developed as a nature 

preserve and other recreational opportunities 

could certainly be developed within the 281- 

acre complex. 

The site should be enhanced with 
artwork and sculpture. 
This could be related to SSA's identity and 
mission. Commissions could support local 
artists. And installations could help provide 
links between the architecture and the sur- 
rounding landscape. 

A BUDGET LINE SHOULD BE CREATED 
TO MAINTAIN ALL LANDSCAPE AND 
SITE IMPROVEMENTS. 

Designs can be developed to keep staff, upkeep 
and supply costs to a minimum, but some 
resources will be necessary to maintain the 
kinds of improvements outlined in these guide- 
lines. Proposals, then, should be analyzed from 
a life-cycle perspective and accompanied with 
an estimate of maintenance expenses. 



15 



Exterior Architecture Analysis and Guidelines 



On The Positive Side 

The charretce team praised the wonderful site 
as well as the capable handling of building 
massing and heights within the campus. They 
also noted that the courtyards, bridges, and 
other links among elements of the complex 
presented valuable design opportunities. 

Missed Opportunities 

On the negative side, the team pointed out the 
lack of a distinguished headquarters entrance, 
a poor system of entrances in all the campus 
facilities, the monotony of the facades in terms 
of color, rhythm and detail, and the failure of 
brick and other materials problems as the major 
architectural challenges. 

Goals 

I The renovation should transform and 
strengthen the SSA image. 

I Architectural changes should establish a more 
human scale and character. 

I Any new designs should accommodate 
change and advances in technology. 



Guidelines 

Within a certain range of design concepts 

AND palette of MATERIALS, VARIETY SHOULD 
BE A KEY ASPECT OF THE NEW FENESTRATION 
TREATMENT. 

The facades should replace the current "strip 
window" motif with a selected variety of open- 
ings based on such factors as orientation to the 
sun and vistas, the expression of interior func- 
tions including team work areas and other 
special uses, and the need to create hierarchy 
among the buildings and facade elements in 
general. 

Brick should be the basic material for 

THE facades in COMBINATION WITH STONE OR 
precast CONCRETE ACCENTS. 
Brick is a rich and warm material that can 
help create an appropriate civic image for SSA. 
It can express the quality of permanence. If 
detailed well, it can also enhance the human 
scale of the design. It is economical. It comes 
in a broad range of colors, textures, and sizes, 
and can be arranged in patterns and/or struc- 
tural motifs. On a pragmatic level, two other 
advantages related to this choice are that the 
SSA buildings are already designed to accept a 
brick facade and that local tradespeople have 
ample experience with brick construction. 

The facades should incorporate devices 
SUCH as sunscreens, light shelves, 
canopies, and loggias to create a more 
identifiable human scale and a sense of 

layering. 

Obviously, these items can also add interest 
to the fenestration and, in some cases, act as 
energy-saving features. 



"The building facades 
should represent the IMAG! 

OF the SSA BY showing BOTH 

solidity and humanity." 



—John Clancy 



16 







Bridges, links between buildings, 
courtyards, and large expanses 
of solid wall should all be 
treated as distinctive facade 
events, perhaps highlighted with 
unique materials and forms. 






The facades should incorporate 
devices such as sunscreens, light 
shelves, canopies, and loggias to 
create a more identifiable scale 
and sense of layering. 



17 




Covered walkways could 
help mitigate the effect of the 
existing "sea of parking. " 



18 



The exterior skin should be energy 
efficient, durable, easy to maintain, 
and cost effective. 

These should be considered minimum stan- 
dards, quahries that should be reflected in 
every design proposal. Moreover, life cycle 
cost analyses should be part of evaluating these 
criteria. Another issue is to assess how the 
facades should be modified in response to 
new functions and technologies. 

Entrances to the buildings should 

RECEIVE special ATTENTION. 
These are among the weakest points in the 
existing design. The Altmeyer building is the 
main public gateway to the complex, yet it is 
approached from the side of a narrow road. 
Architecturally, this needs to be dramatically 
improved. The procession to this entrance, its 
scale, and its details should all work together to 
let visitors and employees know this is the front 
door of the SSA headquarters. Other staff and 
service entrances also need to be defined as 
secondary but nonetheless self-evident path- 
ways into the buildings. 



Bridges, links between buildings, 
courtyards, and large expanses of solid 
wall should all be treated as distinctive 
facade events, perhaps highlighted 
with unique materials and forms. 
These are places where the facades can break 
from the pattern, interjecting an "irrational" 
element in the otherwise relentlessly rational 
ensemble of large scale buildings. In addition 
to brick and stone or precast concrete, metal 
and glass might be used at these junctures. 
Passageways might be characterized by other- 
wise unexpected shapes and details, adding 
visual energ}' to key points in the complex and 
helping to call out entrances and other note- 
worthy functions. Large windowless walls 
might be decorated with artwork or murals. 

As RENOVATION PLANS PROCEED, EXISTING 
MATERIALS SHOULD BE RECYCLED WHEN 
POSSIBLE, AND NEW FACADES SHOULD BE 
REQUIRED TO USE RECYCLABLE MATERIALS. 
This enhances the image of SSA as a wise 
custodian of resources, reducing contributions 
to the waste stream while making the agency 
headquarters a model of sustainable design. 




Large windowless walls 
might be decorated with 
artwork or murals. 



19 



Building Interiors Analysis and Guidelines 



On The Positive Side 

From the perspective of interiors, four aspects 
of the SSA headquarters impressed the charrette 
team. First, the structure of the buildings was 
sound. Second, floor-to-floor heights were 
generous, a fact that provides adequate space 
for the mechanical systems and allows designers 
to suggest a variety of interior layouts. Third, 
there seemed to be adequate access to the many 
spaces in the complex. And finally, the mix of 
building types and floor plates should yield 
flexibility in responding to current needs and 
future changes. 

Missed Opportunities 

In this arena, the team emphasized the lack of 
identity and clarity in organizing SSA func- 
tions. It commented on cavernous interior 
layouts without any natural light. It felt there 
was little effort to visually link interiors with 
exterior spaces and other site assets. There were 
few, if any, team spaces in an era when team- 
work is becoming the norm. The existing heat- 
ing and cooling systems were deemed inad- 
equate. Access for persons with disabilities was 
cumbersome and unattractive. And interior 
finishes were generally budget friendly but 
ineffective in creating a human scale, people- 
oriented work environment. 



GOALS 

I Make it easier to navigate and understand 
the buildings. 

I Humanize the work areas. 

I Maximize the efficiency and individual 
control of the engineered systems including 
lighting, heating and cooling. 

Guidelines 

The renovations should enhance 
and clarify entries and lobbies. 

The movement from outside spaces to various 
interior divisions is confusing and circuitous. 
Exterior orientation needs to be improved. 
Lobbies, without compromising security, 
should welcome employees and visitors with 
human scaled details and finishes. And once 
inside, it should be much easier to distinguish 
the paths to different functions in the complex. 

New interior layouts should have 

A self-evident hierarchy of work spaces 

AND circulation. 

Presently, major and minor corridors are a maze 
with incoherent circulation patterns and vistas 
lacking focal points. It is easy to get lost. There 
is little that modulates the rhythm of spaces, 
and any one cluster of workstations looks very 
much like all the others. Designers should cre- 
ate an easily understood hierarchy of pathways 
(i.e., "freeways," "boulevards," and "streets") 
through buildings. They should interrupt long 
vistas with uniquely designed team and open 
spaces, the introduction of daylighting, or 
changes in finishes. In certain areas, corridors 
might end with full height windows, naturally 
lit team rooms or vistas into the site to keep 
users better oriented. 



"Let's try to humanize the 
workplace. There's a lot oi 
space, and it is very easy tc 
feel lost. We'd like to mak 
IT productive and healthy." 



-Jeff Getty 



20 



A SIGNAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE DESIGNED 
TO SUPPORT THE CIRCULATION CONCEPT. 
This should be coordinated with, and become 
an extension of, site signage. It should be easily 
understood and appear consistently throughout 
the campus in lobbies, at major nodes and 
points of vertical circulation. It should also be 
inexpensive and easy to modify as functions 
move and other changes occur in the complex. 

The scale of work areas in buildings with 
large floor plates, such as operations 
AND THE Annex, needs to be humanized. 
There should be an easily understood pattern 
of workstation clusters separated by such things 
as team spaces, break areas, or different kinds 
of lighting. Various functions should be identi- 
fied with changes in materials, colors, textures, 
and/or the arrangement of workstations. High 
use pathways should end with views into the 
site. Finishes should be warm and inviting. 
The height and placement of partitions should 
maximize shared daylighting. 




AK 


t 



The scale of work areas in 
buildings with large floor 
plates needs to be humanized. 

There should be an 
easily understood pattern 
of workstation clusters. . . 



The relationships between interior 

SPACES and the site SHOULD BE GREATLY 
IMPROVED. 

As noted earlier, important corridors should 
end with vistas across the campus. In addition, 
however, new interior layouts might include a 
shift in priorities that puts team, meeting, and 
group spaces rather than individual ofFices 
along building perimeters. The height of parti- 
tions should also be limited along exterior walls 
or clear/translucent panels should be used so 
that those working in interior spaces have some 
visual contact with the exterior. 

Daylighting should be available to 
as many offices as possible. 
Beyond the strategies just mentioned, a response 
to this guideline might also include opening up 
the interior of a building like Operations with 
atria, lightwells, and skylights. Perhaps this 
could be done at the escalator core and other 
major circulation points. And because of the 
relatively generous floor-to-floor heights, light 
shelves could also be used to share reflected 
light with interior spaces. 



21 



Building Interiors Analysis and Guidelines 



Daylighting should be available 
to as many offices as possible. 
This might include opening up 
the interior of a building like 
Operations with atria, lightwells, 
and skylights. 







New interior layouts might 
include a shift in priorities that 
puts team, meeting, and group 
spaces rather than individual 
offices along building perimeters. 

Passageways might be characterized 
by unexpected shapes and details, 
adding visual energy to key points 
in the complex and helping call out 
entrances. 



22 



Finishes, in addition to contributing 
to the human scale of the complex, 
should also be safe, non-toxic, durable, 
permanent, and cost effective. 
As part of a larger master plan, a palette of 
materials that meet these criteria should be 
selected by SSA and its design team, and then 
this should be used by various project architects 
throughout the renovation process. One inter- 
esting possibility is that brick and brick details 
might be used on the interior as well as the 
exterior of the buildings. 

FLEXIBILITY SHOULD BE A HIGH PRIORITY 
IN THE RENOVATION EFFORT. 

In the workplace today, change is the norm. 
There is no doubt that in the decades to come 
SSA will need to modify and reconfigure its 
work areas several times. In this context, flex- 
ibility should be a fundamental principle guid- 
ing the design and installation of all systems. 
This will allow SSA to respond more effectively 
and more efficiently to a broad spectrum of 
future needs. 

The LIGHTING DESIGN SHOULD BE BOTH 
FLEXIBLE AND EFFICIENT. 
It should be easy to rewire, move or install new 
fixtures when necessary. Daylighting should be 
used as much as possible. Glare should be mini- 
mized. And employees should have task lights 
available in their workstations. 



The new HVAC system should facilitate 
frequent air changes and give employees 
significant control over temperatures 
and air flow in their own work and 
meeting areas. 

This is necessary not only to satisfy individual 
preferences, but also because buildings are 
affected by different functional and climatic 
conditions. Southern facades, for instance, 
absorb heat while northern facades receive 
no direct sunlight. Certain interior areas have 
to contend with heat generated by computers 
and other machinery while there might be little 
impact from equipment in other spaces. The 
HVAC, in response to human comfort require- 
ments as well as recent regulations, should 
permit users to fine tune the system to meet 
a diversity of environmental situations. 

A WIRE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SHOULD BE 
CAREFULLY DESIGNED AND MAINTAINED. 

Complex telephone, electric, and network wir- 
ing are a reality in today's workplace. Space 
planners need to come up with a strategy to 
handle all these links in ways that are flexible, 
safe, and unobtrusive. Without advanced 
planning - including identification and removal 
of all abandoned wiring - this aspect of office 
design can quickly get out of control, increasing 
frustration and reducing productivity. 





Existing heating and cooling systems 
were deemed inadequate. 



23 



Process and Implementation Guidelines 



The charrette team presented three guideHnes 
as strategies that would help assure the highest 
quality design outcomes. 

Scopes of work for all future projects 
ON the site should direct the A/E's to 
consult this charrette report and ensure 

THAT each of THE CONCERNS MENTIONED IN 

THE Summary of Guidelines is addressed. 
In addition to referring to the master plan dis- 
cussed below, this will help assure continuity of 
the decision-making and design processes, and 
provide a consensus regarding objectives in a 
renovation program that will take more than a 
decade to complete. 

A master plan needs TO BE DEVELOPED 
FOR THE ENTIRE SSA RENOVATION PROJECT 
INCLUDING SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS 
FOR SITE AND LANDSCAPING IMPROVEMENTS; 
BUILDING FACADES AND ARCHITECTURAL 
vocabulary; and interior design STRATEGIES 
AND FINISHES. 

Because of the duration of this major effort, 
a master plan should be developed as soon as 
possible. This will put individual projects in 
a larger context, establish clear priorities, and 
create a common palette of landscape, architec- 
ture, and interior design features that different 
design teams can use over time with some as- 
surance that the overall unity of the campus 
will not be jeopardized. 



The MASTER PLANNING TEAM AND DESIGNERS 
FOR INDIVIDUAL FACETS OF THE RENOVATION 
SHOULD BE MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND INCLUDE 
EXPERTISE IN LANDSCAPE, ARCHITECTURE, 
OFFICE DESIGN, ENVIRONMENTAL GRAPHIC 
DESIGN, AND PUBLIC ART. 
It should be clear that the challenges involved 
in this endeavor go beyond the abilities of most 
architects and interior designers. The recom- 
mended blend of talent, then, while requiring 
more organization and coordination, with help 
assure optimum results for the S200 million 
ultimately invested in this undertaking. 

The MASTER PLAN AND PROJECT DESIGN 
PROCESSES SHOULD INCLUDE OPPORTUNITIES 
FOR EMPLOYEE INPUT AND REACTION. 
This vests staff in the changes and often uncov- 
ers nuances, insights, and worker priorities that 
might otherwise be overlooked. 



24 




SSA Mission 



"to administer national 
Social Security programs 
as prescribed by legislation, 
in an equitable. effective, 
efficient and caring manner." 



25 



Appendix 1 : Summary of the Guidelines 



Project Objective 
I Think Big! 

Project Objectives - 
Image 

I The renovated faciUties 
should be supportive and 
accessible. 

I The renovated facilities 
should suggest the importance 
of community. 

I The renovated facilities 
should feature cultural and 
educational displays related 
to SSA. 

I The renovated facilities 
should have a civic presence. 

I The renovated facilities 
should instill trust. 



Project Objectives - 

Humanism 

I The renovated facilities 
should have a human scale, 
evoke a sense of place, and be 
an attractive place to work. 

I The renovated facilities 
should be a healthy place to 
work. 



I The renovated facilities 
should be flexible. 

I The renovated facilities 
should be a good neighbor at a 
local, national, and even global 
scale. 

I The renovated facilities 
should be an example of 
conservation and sustainable 
design. 

Site and Landscape 
Guidelines 

I Natural systems should be 
the basis of SSA campus site 
planning. 

I In general, landscaping 
should focus on native species 
and low-maintenance design. 

I Security Boulevard, the 
headquarters' front lawn, 
needs a landscape plan to 
"civilize" this critical edge of 
the site. 

I New site signage and light- 
ing systems should be devel- 
oped. 

I The site features in front of 
the Altmeyer building should 
be redeveloped to make that 
facade a more prominent ele- 
ment of the campus. 



I The bus loop courtyard 
should be redesigned to clarify 
the many functions coming 
off that space. 

I The south-facing courtyard 
between Annex and Opera- 
tions should be developed as a 
more dynamic campus space. 

I The pedestrian and play- 
ground strip along the south 
face of Operations should be 
widened and planted with 
additional trees as a visual and 
environmental buffer for the 
daycare center and the build- 
ing. 

I The east face of Operations 
also needs to be buffered from 
the parking. 

I The amount of land devoted 
to parking should be reduced. 

I The existing parking lots 
should be relandscaped. 

I Covered walkways should 
be designed between the 
buildings and the parking. 

I Separate pavilions should be 
constructed for bus riders and 
smokers. 



I Rooftop mechanical equip- 
ment screens should become 
design feature. 

I Controlled community 
access to the site should be 
encouraged. 

I The site should be enhance 
with artwork and sculpture. 

I A budget line should be 
created to maintain all land- 
scape and site improvements 



Exterior Architecture 
Guidelines 

I Within a certain range of 
design concepts and palette c 
materials, variety should be a 
key aspect of the new fenestr 
tion treatment. 

I Brick should be the basic 
material for the facades in 
combination with stone and 
precast concrete accents. 

I The facades should incorpc 
rate devices such as sunscreer 
light shelves, canopies, and 
loggias to create a more idem 
fiable scale and a sense of 
layering. 



26 



I The exterior skin should be 
energy efficient, durable, easy 
to maintain, and cost effective. 

I Entrances to the buildings 
should receive special atten- 
tion. 

I Bridges, links between build- 
ings, courtyards, and large 
expanses of solid wall should 
all be treated as distinctive 
facade events, perhaps high- 
lighted with unique materials 
and forms. 

I As renovation plans proceed, 
existing materials should be 
recycled when possible, and 
new facades should be required 
to use recyclable materials. 



Building Interiors 
Guidelines 

I The renovations should 
enhance and clarify entries and 
lobbies. 

I New interior layouts should 
have a self-evident hierarchy of 
work spaces and circulation. 

I A signage system should be 
designed to support the circu- 
lation concept. 



I The scale of work areas in 
buildings with large floor 
plates, such as Operations 
and the Annex, needs to be 
humanized. 

I The relationships between 
interior spaces and the site 
should be greatly improved. 

I Daylighting should be 
available to as many offices 
as possible. 

I Finishes, in addition to 
contributing to the human 
scale of the complex, should 
also be safe, nontoxic, durable, 
permanent, and cost effective. 

I Flexibility should be a high 
priority in the renovation 
effort. 

I The lighting design should 
be both flexible and efficient. 

I The new HVAC system 
should facilitate frequent air 
changes and give employees 
significant control over tem- 
peratures and air flow in their 
own work and meeting areas. 

I A wire management system 
should be carefully designed 
and maintained. 



Process and Implementa- 
tion Guidelines 

I Scopes of work for all future 
projects on the site should 
direct the A/E's to consult this 
charrette report and ensure 
that each of,the concerns men- 
tioned in the Summary of 
Guidelines is addressed. 

I A master plan needs to be 
developed for the entire SSA 
renovation project including 
specific recommendations for 
site and landscaping improve- 
ments; building facades and 
architectural vocabulary; and 
interior design strategies and 
finishes. 

I The master planning team 
and designers for individual 
facets of the renovation should 
be multidisciplinary and in- 
clude expertise in landscape, 
architecture, office design, 
environmental graphic design, 
and public art. 

I The master plan and project 
design processes should in- 
clude opportunities for em- 
ployee input and reaction. 



27 



Appendix 2: Additional Issues and Concerns 



Those participating in the charrette, including 
SSA and GSA representatives, articulated sev- 
eral ideas that did not neatK' fit into the frame- 
work for the design guidehnes. These additional 
thoughts and comments are recorded here with- 
out any particular order or priorit)'. 

Move the line of security deeper into the 
buildings to permit greater community 
access to facilities. 



Build an interactive SSA museum to 
educate the public concerning the 
agency's history and mission and develop 
better community relations. 

Sponsor art and performance programs 
as well as exhibitions by local schools. 



"There are potential 
opportunities to use 
portions of the landscape 
as a resource to enhance 
community relations." 



— Everett Fly 



Expand the fitness center to accept those 
currently on the waiting list and use 
extra membership funds to support and 
improve the daycare centers. 

create humane smokers areas. 



SPONSOR A WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 




28 



Appendix 3: Charrette Agenda 



Wednesday, 2 November 1 994 

8:45 Welcotne 

Thomas Grooms 

Design Program, NEA 

Barbara Sledge 

Associate Commissioner, 

Office of Facilities Management, SSA 

Rob Hewell 

Director, Portfolio Management, GSA 

9:00 Background of the \Voo(ilaw>i Co)>iplex 
and the Modernization Projects 

John Bernet 

Woodlawn Branch Chief, GSA 

1 0:00 Tour of the Facility 

George Powell 

Chief Headquarters Project 
Management Section, SSA 

12:00 Lunch 

1:00 Presentation by SSA Union Representatives 

Earl HoUenbaugh and Ken Smith 

Representing AFGE Local 1923 Union 

2:00 Charrette Convenes — 

Discussion of Issues, Agenda and Format 

5:30 Adjourn 



Thursday, 3 November 1994 

8:45 Reconvene Charrette 

1 :00 Charrette Discussions 

3:00 Wrap-Up and Preparation for Presentatio)i 

4:00 Summary of Design Guideli>ics 
Attending: 

Kenneth Kimbrough 

Commissioner, Public Buildings Service, 
GSA 

Jan Ziegler 

Assistant Regional Administrator, 
Public Buildings Service, GSA 

John Dyer 

Deputy Commissioner for Finance, 

Assessment & Management, SSA 

Dale Sopper 

Assistant Deputy C'ommissioner 
for Finance, SSA 

Barbara Sledge 

Associate Commissioner, 

Office of Facilities Management, SSA 

Gary Arnold 

Deputy Associate Commissioner, 
Office of Facilities Management, SSA 

5:30 Adjourn 



29 



Appendix 4: Biographies of the Design Team 



The Design Team 

Everett L. Fly 
(San Antonio, TX) 

Everett Fly is principal of E.L. Fly & Associates 
Inc. /Planning, Landscape Architecture and 
Architecture, former Assistant Professor of 
Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin, 
and Visiting Lecturer in the Department of 
Architecture at the University of California at 
Berkeley. He has lectured extensively at major 
conferences, workshops, and seminars through- 
out the country. He is author of "Black Settle- 
ments in America," a section in The Yearbook 
of Landscape Architecture: Historic American 
Buildings from Airports to Zoos. He is a member 
of the American Societ)' of Landscape Archi- 
tects and a former member of the Texas Board 
of Review for the National Register of Historic 
Places. Mr. Fly practices as a registered land- 
scape architect (Texas, California, Georgia, 
Alabama and Florida) and a registered architect 
(Texas, California, Florida). He is licensed in 
Texas as a professional irrigator. He has been 
responsible for more than 100 planning, design 
and construction projects, ranging from less 
than an acre to entire urban districts. He holds 
a Bachelor of Architecture from the University 
of Texas at Austin and a Master of Landscape 
Architecture from Harvard University. In Sep- 
tember 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed 
Mr. Fly to the 32-member President's Commit- 
tee on the Arts and the Humanities. 



Jeffrey Getty 
(Alexandria, VA) 

Jeffrey Getty is a senior architect and Vice Presi- 
dent of Hennington, Durham & Richardson, 
Inc. (HDR), and Principal of HDR's Interior 
Architecture program. He is an award winning 
designer who has been responsible for a wide 
range of large scale and technically challenging 
facilities in the United States and abroad. 
Mr. Gett\''s client experience includes IBM, 
The Federal National Mortgage Association 
(Fannie Mae), Xerox, The Washington Post, 
and a number of prominent health care provid- 
ers such as Kaiser Permanente. In addition, 
he has served as a key participant in a host of 
projects for the federal government including 
work for the General Services Administration 
and the Department of Defense. Mr. Getty 
also served as a senior design architect with the 
Washington office of John Carl Warecke & 
Associates and managed his own practice for 
several years. He holds Bachelor of Architecture 
and Master of Architecture degrees from the 
University of Virginia, where he received the 
AIA School Medal in 1976. He is a licensed 
professional architect in Virginia, Maryland, 
and the District of Columbia. 



John Clancy 
(Boston, MA) 

John Clancy is a principal of Goody, Clancy & 
Associates, an architecture and urban planning 
firm in Boston. He is former chairman of the 
Brookline Redevelopment Authority' and has 
been a visiting lecturer and critic at Harvard 
Universitv and the Massachusetts Institute of 



30 



Technology. Mr. Clancy's works have received 
numerous awards and include Tent City, 
Massachusetts Transportation Building, and 
Langham Court in Boston; Austin Hall and 
DeWolfe Street Housing for Harvard Univer- 
sity; MBTA Davis Square Subway Station, 
Somerville, MA; and WoodRidge Homes, 
North Andover, MA. Mr. Clancy is a Fellow of 
the American Institute oi Architects. He holds a 
Bachelor ol Art from the University of Califor- 
nia, Berkeley, and a Bachelor of Architecture 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Jim Olson, Charrette Team Chair 
(Seattle, WA) 

In 1970, Jim Olson founded the architectural 
firm which became Olson Sundberg Architects 
in 1985. As principal, he has been responsible 
for such projects as the Washington State Capi- 
tol Museum and the Overlake Park Presbyterian 
Church, which received a 1990 American Insti- 
tute of Architects Seattle Chapter Honor Award. 
He was an associate architect with Robert Ven- 
turi on the Seattle Art Museum and is currently 
working with Moore/Andersson Architects on 
the Washington State History Museum. Mr. 
Olson has a special interest and dedication to 
environmentally sensitive, sustainable design. 
Under his direction an ecology group has been 
formed to evaluate environmentally responsible 
design. His honors include: the Seattle Art 
Award for Architecture from the Seattle Arts 
Commission; First Place in the Seattle AlA 
"Museum in the City" Competition; and "Best 
Architect" from Seattle Magazine, 1985. Mr. 
Olson is a Fellow of the American Institute of 
Architects and was featured in Architectural 
Digest's "100 Architects," an international guide 
to the world's leading architects. He is a past 



board member ol the University of Washington 
Henry Art Gallery, the Center on Contempo- 
rary Art, and Artist's Trust. He holds a Bachelor 
of Architecture degree from the University of 
Washington. 



Gregory Tung 
(San Francisco, CA) 

Gregory Tung is a partner of Freedman Tung 
and Bottomley, which specializes in downtown 
and neighborhood revitalization plans, develop- 
ment master plans, design guidelines, and 
designs for public spaces and landmarks. Some 
of the firm's projects include a main street rede- 
sign and downtown revitalization strategy for 
Mountain View, California; a gateway arch, 
street improvements and a revitalization strategy 
for the North Area of San Leandro, California; 
a clock tower and a campus town revitalization 
plan in Ames, Iowa; a recently completed 
downtown streetscape project in Phoenix, 
Arizona; and a downtown site selection and 
master plan for Cathedral City, California. His 
research work includes survey recording of the 
Sacramento delta chinatown of Locke, Califor- 
nia with the Historic American Buildings Sur- 
vey, and earthquake reconstruction projects in 
Southern Italy. His articles on urban and street 
design have been published in Western City and 
Places. He has taught urban design at the Col- 
lege of Environmental Design, U.C. Berkeley, 
and has participated in the Design Programs' 
Mayor's Institute for City Design in Berkeley 
and St. Paul. Mr. Tung earned a Bachelor of 
Arts degree in Architecture from Yale University 
and won a Regents Scholarship to the Graduate 
School of Architecture at the University of 
California at Berkeley. 



31 



Appendix 4: List of Participants in the Charrette 



SSA Participants 

Jon Barnes, RA 

Architectural & Engineering 
Branch 

Mike Johnson, RA 

Chief, Architectural & 
Engineering Branch 

John Robusto 

Mechanical Engineer, 
Architectural & Engineering 
Branch 

John Rogoz 

Structural Engineer, 
T^chitectural & Engineering 
Branch 

Bob Tufano, RA 

Architectural &C Engineering 
Branch 



GSA Participants 

Dan Bailey, RA 

Professional Development 
& Consultation Division, 
Mid-Atlantic Region 

Ted Bobrowski 

Structural Engineer, 
Group Manager, New River 
Realty Services District, 
Mid-Atlantic Region 

Rob Hewell 

Director, Portfolio 
Management Division, 
Mid-Atlantic Region 

Kevin Kelly 

Architect, Design & 
Construction Division, 
Central Office 

Jill K. Shafer, RA 

Project Manager, 
Project Services Division, 
Mid-Atlantic Region 



SSA Union 
Representatives 

Earl Hollenbaugh 

AFGE Local 1923 

Ken Smith 
AFGE Local 1923 



Project Coordinators 

Nancy Belt 

Asset Manager, GSA 

John Bernet 

Woodlawn Branch Chief, GSA 

Nancy Hall 

Asset Manager, GSA 

Anja Levitties 

Fine Arts Officer, GSA 

George Powell 

Chief Headquarters Project 
Management Section, SSA 



NEA Participants 

Thomas Grooms 

Program Manager, 
Federal Design 
Improvement Program, 
Design Program 

Thomas Walton, Ph.D. 

Rapporteur, School oi 
Architecture and Planning, 
The Catholic University 

of America 



32 



Pit' ■•'■''